Glossary: Important Terms Defined

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Glossary of Important Conditions Treated 

Diabetes Mellitus Type I- Insulin dependent diabetes also referred to as juvenile diabetes. Patients are usually diagnosed at a very young age. Insulin is administered daily using insulin pens or insulin pumps. Early diagnosis, patient education, and improved compliance, help patients achieve target glucose goals; minimizing complications of the eyes, nerves, kidneys, and cardiovascular system as a result.

Diabetes Mellitus Type II- Is a metabolic disorder resulting from the lack of insulin production or the lack of proper usage of insulin produced by the body or a combination of factors. Early diagnosis facilitates early intervention which may delay the onset of diabetes and its inherent complications including renal failure as well as cardiac complications. It may also facilitate postponing the use of medication primarily through better eating habits, frequent exercise, and some weight loss. 

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus- Is a condition in which the blood glucose is elevated during pregnancy. Approximately 3% to 8% of all pregnant women in the U.S.are diagnosed with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. Risk factors associated with Gestational Diabetes include a family history of diabetes, age, race, older women carrying greater risk of gestational diabetes, African American women, American Indians, Asian Americans, Hispanics, Pacific Islanders, pre-diabetics, and obesity. The condition is generally diagnosed between the 24th and 28th week of gestation. Early diagnosis of Gestational Diabetes can be managed effectively with diet and exercise. This aids in minimizing related health complications like Macrosomia (big baby) and hypoglycemia (low blood sugar), as well as electrolyte imbalances (low calcium/low magnesium).  

Hyperparathyroidism- There are four parathyroid glands, two on either side of the thyroid gland. They produce a hormone called parathyroid hormone, which regulate calcium in the body. Heightened levels of parathyroid may cause kidney stones and or osteoporosis. Therefore, making an early diagnosis can prevent the above complications. 

Osteoporosis- Is a disease of the bones characterized by a loss of bone mass coupled with bone destruction. The condition is usually seen in post-menopausal women. Predominantly evident in women with a family history of osteoporosis, smokers, long-term use of steroids, prolonged exposure to an excess of thyroid replacement hormones. May lead to bone fractures. Therefore, making an early diagnosis can prevent the above complications.

PCOS (Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome) - Generally seen in young women. The condition manifests itself as irregular menstrual periods, presence of ovarian cysts, acne, and hirsutism (excess facial/body hair growth). May cause lack of ovulation leading to infertility. PCOS is associated with high levels of male hormone thereby offsetting the serum testosterone/estrogen ratio. 

​Thyroid disorders-The thyroid gland is located anatomically in the lower midline portion of the neck. It produces a hormone called thyroxin which when under-produced is referred to as hypothyroidism or if over-produced results in hyperthyroidism. 

Thyroid nodules- Commonly referred to as goiters. May be single or multiple nodules and usually benign (non-cancerous). Occasionally, may be malignant (cancerous) but generally low-grade.